Required knowledge

A good knowledge of the following methods, terms, principles and the context in which they are relevant is a precondition for Medical Life Sciences. The topics listed below contain the MINIMUM knowledge requirements.

Cell biology (lab experience is a must, i.e. you have conducted experiments in the lab yourself):


DNA replication



molecular cloning

cell structure and organelles


Relevant literature:

Alberts, Bruce, Molecular Biology of the Cell (6th edition, 2014) - [Part I: introduction to the cell, II: basic genetic mechanisms, III: manipulating proteins, DNA, RNA]


Genetics (lab experience is a must, i.e. you have conducted lab experiments yourself; watching how steps are demonstrated does not count):

PCR, molecular cloning, Sanger sequencing, nucleic acid hybridisation

human chromosomes, Mendelian inheritance

gene structure


Relevant literature:

Strachan, Thomas and Read, Andrew, Human Molecular Genetics (5th edition  2018)


Biochemistry (lab experience is a must: you have hands-on experience in conducting experiments in the lab yourself):





Relevant literature:

Berg JM, Gumport RI, Stryer L et al., Biochemistry (9th edition 2019)


Major principles in biology and scientists establishing them:

Theory of Evolution

Natural Selection

Charles Darwin

Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck



The importance of handling yourself in a laboratory

It is usually very helpful to have done additional lab internships of several weeks or months in the industry or in academia carrying out tasks in the lab self-guidedly. The minimum requirement is lab experience in your Bachelor studies of several weeks (genetics, cell biology, biochemistry).